Surgical Dentistry

The tongue bridle represents itself folds of mucosa, which normally are located in the midline and additionally attaches the tongue to the jaw bones.

A short frenulum of tongue first can be detected by a dentist or pediatrician during the inspection of the child. If the frenulum of tongue is too short, that makes difficult for the child fully to suck its mother’s breast, the child gains weight badly, then in that case ankylotomy is held, after which the child is immediately applied to the chest. Unfortunately, after such an intervention there may be formed a rough scar, which leads to the need of reoperation at an older age. Short frenulum of tongue significantly affects the quality of the pronunciation of many sounds, so that the speech therapist may also recommend the plastic bridles. Such a need mostly arises in the age of 5 years. It should not be forgotten that the operation only “exempts” the tongue, after which the child must undergo speech therapy training. In older age short frenulum of tongue can inhibit the growth of the mandible. Plastic frenulum of tongue is performed under local anesthesia, and at the place of the frenulum sutures remain that are resorbed. It is important to follow the doctor’s recommendations after surgery: to limit conversations and exclude the hard food. Indications for plastic frenulum of tongue defines not the surgeon-dentist, but orthodontist or speech therapist.
Plastic lip frenulum
The Dangers of a short frenulum lip
In oral cavity attachment of mucosal to the skeleton of jaw bone is performed by means of special strands, so-called bridles.
With the shortening of the frenulum of the upper or lower lip of an infant a vital function of sucking is limited, and for the preschooler – the function of forming speech, correct speech pronunciation. Anomaly of its attachment endangers the health of periodontal tissues of anterior teeth of the lower jaw. If the necessary measures are not taken in time, they may become unstable due to exposure of the roots, their sensitivity can become so high that eating can become a torture. Short frenulum of the upper or lower lip may also cause cosmetic defect (gap between front teeth). Operation of the upper lip frenulum plastic surgeon does after full eruption of four maxillary incisors of a child (average, approximately 7-8 years). Operation of the plastics of the front part of the oral cavity is held after full eruption of the four mandibular incisors (8-9 years).
Teeth-preserving operations
Methods of preserving teeth

One of the modern trends in dental surgery is teeth-preserving operations. The name speaks for itself. If previously in any complex case the tooth was removed, so now dentists are doing their best to save the tooth. Tooth-preserving operations include such types of manipulation as the removal of various tumors in bone or soft tissues of the mouth, amputation of the roots of teeth, crown-radicular separation, as well as various methods of treatment of periodontal diseases.
The most common neoplasms of the oral cavity are root or radicular cysts. Cyst of the tooth (cyst, lat) is a tumor formation in the bone, often of inflammatory nature. Thus there is formed a cavity, coated and filled with special liquid.
“Treachery” of the cyst is that it occurs without symptoms until it causes serious damages. Surgical intervention is aimed at fully polished shell, because even one cell can cause a relapse.
In case of failure or inability of conservative treatment of one of the roots of the three-root tooth, positive results are achieved by surgical treatment. In order not to remove the entire tooth because of one damaged root, amputation of roots is done –it is neatly cut out and the three-root tooth is turned into two-root one, preserving its full functional activity.
In case when caries damages two-root tooth in the area of bifurcation (the place, where the roots diverge), the crown-radicular separation is used – crown of the tooth is being cut into two parts, thereby separating the roots. As a result, one two-root tooth is transformed into two one-root ones, and that allows to open access to the ill cavity and make its treatment.
All surgical methods of treatment of periodontal diseases are tooth-preserving operations. All they are aimed at strengthening teeth, the removal of focus of infection and the rehabilitation of patients with this difficult problem. There are plenty of conservative treatments for periodontal disease and periodontitis, but in many cases it is necessary to use surgical treatment.
Periodontal disease sooner or later leads to loss of healthy teeth, plus the high probability of the secondary infection, which negatively affects on not only the tooth-jaw system, but on the whole organism on the whole. If periodontitis is the result of metabolic disorders and is manifested in atrophy of bone tissue of alveolar process and a violation of dentogingival connection, then in periodontitis all these above-mentioned changes result from an inflammatory process, which is based on the accession of infection. Odontogenous infection can cause a lot of complications: sinusitis, lymphadenitis, abscesses, phlegmon, etc. In addition, there is a probability of skidding hematogenous infection (with blood) and lymphogenous (with shock lymph) through all organs and tissues.
Therapeutic part of treatment of these diseases is to eliminate inflammation, surgical – to remove focus of infection and pathologically changed tissues, which creates favourable conditions for regeneration of bone and soft tissues.
Removal of teeth with one-stage bone landing
When removing a tooth the bone, supporting it, undergoes a resorption in a very short time. Filling the hole with bone material allows saving a place for subsequent implantation.
Autopsy of abscess
Late treatment of the inflammatory process leads to the formation of abscess – flux is formed. To eliminate it the gum is cut to facilitate the withdrawal of pus. In the wound there can be a rubber drainage for a time.